Ep. 39 Notes (“Take on Me,” by a-ha)

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The Song

“Take on Me,” by a-ha

And here are the lyrics.

Supporting Songs

“All Because of You,” by U2

“Beautiful Day,” by U2

“Dragonfly,” by a-ha

“Incidental Music for Ep. 39”

“I Wish I Cared,” by a-ha

“The Star-Spangled Banner,” by US Army Bands

“The Sun Always Shines on T.V.,” by a-ha


Information on which I drew in this episode can be found at the following links.


The Wikipedia article on the song.

The Billboard Hot 100 charts for 1985.

The Wikipedia article on “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

Philosophical Sources

Starting in the Middle

I started thinking about Socrates in the way I described in this episode in large part because of Robert C. Barlett’s “Master of Greek Thought: Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle” course for The Great Courses. I won’t blame my ultimate position on Dr. Bartlett, but he was the first to point out to me that Socrates claims to have essentially functioned like a Pre-Socratic in his youth.

Socrates’s attempt to start from the bottom (which he abandoned):

See Plato, Phaedo (then press ctrl-F or command-F and search for, “When I was young,” and read to, “can never admit the other”; then search for, “What expectations I had formed,” and read to, “is a very careless and idle mode of speaking”).

Socrates’s attempt to start from the top (which he abandoned):

See Plato, Phaedo (then press ctrl-F or command-F and search for, “Then I heard some one,” and read to, “the second best mode of enquiring into the cause”).

Aristotle and Endoxa:

Kurt Pritzl, “Opinions as Appearances: Endoxa in Aristotle,” Ancient Philosophy 14, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 41-50.

My posts on the various levels of reality.

Zeno’s Paradoxes

Bradley Dowden, “Zeno’s Paradoxes,” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Nick Huggett, “Zeno’s Paradoxes,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Future

On statements about the future:

Peter Øhrstrøm and Per Hasle, “Future Contingents,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

On God’s foreknowledge and free will:

Norman Swartz, “Foreknowledge and Free Will,” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Search for the following in your podcast app, or visit their websites.

The History of Philosophy without Any Gaps (iTunes link)

New Books in Philosophy (iTunes link)

Philosophy Bites (iTunes link)

Philosophy 24/7 (iTunes link)

In Our Time: Philosophy (iTunes link)

The Philosopher’s Zone (iTunes link)

Hi-Phi Nation (iTunes link)

The Weekly Shuffle (iTunes link)

YouTube Channels

Adam Neely

12 Tone

Early Music Sources

Creatures of Yes

Ezra Tillman’s Illustrated Manuscript for the Epistle of St. Jude

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Featured image by Andrew Hurley, who provides it under a CC BY-SA 2.0 license.

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